INCORPORATION

LIECHTENSTEIN FOUNDATION, PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANY (PLC., CORP.), LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY (LLC., LTD.); ESTABLISHMENT, TRUST ENTERPRISE (TRUST REG.)

See also: LCG Liechtenstein special website 

Company formation in Liechtenstein, the Foundation: legal and tax aspects

Company type: Foundation
- Registered Foundation
- Non-registered Foundation (deposited Foundation)
Name: The company name can be selected in any language. References to countries or regions require special authorisation.
Capital: Minimum capital required is 30 000 CHF; investment in kind possible; donations possible after incorporation.
Shares: No shares or share certificates. The foundation comprises a "specific body of assets" with a particular beneficiary.
Commercial register (Public Register) Yes
Registered agent requirement: At least 1 member of the foundation board must be resident in Liechtenstein.
Registered headquarters: Yes
Entry in the public register: Yes, if the foundation pursues a trade in a commercial manner or the statutes of the foundation provide for this (so-called registered foundation). Otherwise foundations must not be entered in the public register, but the foundation deed must merely be deposited (so-called non-registered foundation).
Shareholders: The founder can be a natural person or a legal entity, who remains anonymous and is represented by a founder in trust (Liechtenstein Trust Administration Institute).
Directors: Yes (foundation board)
Auditor: Yes; obligatory for registered foundations, otherwise optional.
Protector: Optional; a protector can be appointed to oversee the foundation board.
Incorporation period: 1 week
Disclosure of beneficial owner: No; the beneficiary is only named in the by-laws, which are neither entered in the public register nor deposited.
Disclosure of shareholders: No; the founder is publically represented by nominees appointed as founders in trust.
Disclosure of directors: Yes
Trading restrictions: The foundation is not suitable for the pursuit of commercial purposes. A foundation can only be run in a commercial manner if this facilitates the attainment of its non-economic purpose or when required for the preservation or administration of assets.
Taxation: 12,5 % income tax rate (commercial activity), minimum 1.200 CHF
Double taxation agreements: Yes
Balance sheet requirements: Yes; for registered foundations.
No; for non-registered foundations.
Tax returns: Yes. Exception hereto: non-registered Foundations.
Accounting: Yes; No (only deposited Foundation)
Formation costs: 3.000 CHF
Annual running costs: 6.400 CHF

Company formation in Liechtenstein, the Public Limited Company (PLC., Corp.): legal and tax aspects

Company type: Public Limited Company (PLC., Corp.)
Name: The company name may be freely chosen and in any language. Words/expressions including country or place names require special permission.
Capital: A minimum capital of 50,000 CHF is prescribed and must be contributed in full. Non-cash contributions are possible.
Shares: Bearer or registered shares.
Restriction applying to bearer shares also: they require to be registered in the share register.
Share register: Mandatory for bearer and registered shares
Commercial Register (public register): Yes
Registered agent: At least 1 member of the board of directors must be resident in Liechtenstein.
Registered office: Yes
Registration in the public register: Yes
Shareholder: Must be at least 2. May be natural or legal persons.
Director: Must be at least 1. May be a natural or legal person.
Auditing: Yes
Time required for formation: 1 week
Disclosure of the beneficial owner: No
Disclosure of the shareholder(s): No
Disclosure of the directors: Yes
Restrictions on the company's purpose Yes, insofar as relating to banking-, insurance- and asset management activities for third-parties.
Taxation: 12.5% annually in the case of commercial activity. Minimum annual corporate income tax payment of 1,200 CHF.
Double taxation agreements: Yes
Balance sheet: Yes
Tax returns: Yes
Accounting: Yes
Formation fee: 3,000 CHF
Annual running costs: 6,400 CHF

Company formation in Liechtenstein, the Limited Liability Company (LLC., Ltd.): legal and tax aspects

Company type: Limited Liability Company (LLC., Ltd.)
Name: The company name may be freely chosen and in any language. Words/expressions including country or place names require special permission.
Capital: A minimum capital of 30,000 CHF is prescribed and must be contributed in full. Non-cash contribution are possible.
Shares: A Limited Liability Company (LLC., Ltd.) is permitted to issue shares.
Share register: Yes
Commercial Register (public register) Yes; shareholders are to be registered in the Commercial Register
Registered agent: At least one managing director must be resident in Liechtenstein
Registered office: Yes
Registration in the public register: Yes
Commercial Register (public register) Yes; shareholders are to be registered in the Commercial Register
Registered agent: At least one managing director must be resident in Liechtenstein
Registered office: Yes
Registration in the public register: Yes
Shareholder: At least 1
Director (managing director): At least 1
Auditing: Yes
Time required for formation: 1 week
Disclosure of the beneficial owner: No
Disclosure of the shareholder(s): Yes
Disclosure of the directors: Yes
Restrictions on the company's purpose: Yes, insofar as relating to banking-, insurance- and asset management activities for third-parties.
Taxation: 12.5% annually in the case of commercial activity. Minimum annual corporate income tax payment of 1,200 CHF.
Double taxation agreements: Yes
Balance sheet: Yes
Tax returns: Yes
Accounting: Yes
Formation fee: 3,000 CHF
Annual running costs: 6,400 CHF

Company formation in Liechtenstein, the Establishment: legal and tax aspects

Company type: Establishment
- Commercial Establishment
- Non-commercial Establishment
Name: The company name may be freely chosen and in any language. Words/expressions including country or place names require special permission.
Capital: A minimum capital of 30,000 CHF is prescribed (or 50,000 CHF insofar as the capital is segmented into shares). Non-cash contributions are possible.
Shares: An Establishment is permitted to issue shares.
Commercial Register (public register): Yes
Registered agent: At least 1 member of the board of directors must be resident in Liechtenstein
Registered office: Yes
Registration in the public register: Yes
Shareholder (founder): Must be at least 1. May be a natural or legal person.
Director (board of directors): Must be at least 1. May be a natural or legal person.
Auditing: Yes, this is mandatory for commercial Establishments. Otherwise, this is optional.
Time required for formation: 1 week
Disclosure of the beneficial owner: No: the beneficiary is specified in the by-laws only. However, the by-laws are neither registered in the public register nor lodged.
Disclosure of the shareholder (founder): No
Disclosure of the directors: Yes
Restrictions on the company's purpose: Yes, insofar as relating to banking-, insurance- and asset management activities for third-parties.
Taxation: 12.5% annually in the case of commercial activity. Minimum annual corporate income tax payment of 1,200 CHF.
Double taxation agreements: Yes
Balance sheet: Yes, in the case of commercially active Establishments.
No, in the case of Establishments that are not commercially active.
Tax returns: Yes
Accounting: Yes
Formation fee: 3,000 CHF
Annual running costs: 6,400 CHF

Company formation in Liechtenstein, the Trust Enterprise (Trust reg.): legal and tax aspects

Company type: Trust Enterprise (Trust reg.)
Name: The company name may be freely chosen and in any language. Words/expressions including country or place names require special permission.
Capital: A minimum capital of 30,000 CHF is prescribed (or 50,000 CHF insofar as the capital is segmented into shares). Non-cash contributions are possible.
Shares: The Trust Enterprise (Trust reg.) is permitted to issue shares
Commercial register (public register) Yes
Registered agent: At least 1 member of the board of Trustees must be resident in Liechtenstein
Registered office: Yes
Registration in the public register: Yes
Shareholder (founder): Must be at least 1. May be a natural or legal person.
Director (board of Trustees): Must be at least 1. May be a natural or legal person.
Auditing: Yes; in the case of commercial activity, this is mandatory. Otherwise, this is optional.
Time required for formation: 1 week
Disclosure of the beneficial owner: No; the beneficiary is specified in the by-laws only. However, the by-laws are neither registered in the public register nor lodged.
Disclosure of the shareholder (founder): No
Disclosure of the directors: Yes
Restrictions on the company's purpose: Yes, insofar as relating to banking-, insurance- and asset management activities for third-parties.
Taxation 12.5% annually in the case of commercial activity. Minimum annual corporate income tax payment of 1,200 CHF.
Double taxation agreements: Yes
Balance sheet: Yes, if a Trust Enterprise (Trust reg.) is commercially active.
No, if a Trust Enterprise is not commercially active.
Tax returns: Yes
Accounting: Yes
Formation fee: 3,000 CHF
Annual running costs: 6,400 CHF

Lichtenstein: general information

Area: 160 sq km
Capital: Vaduz
GDP per capita: In excess of 181,780 CHF
Unemployment Rate: Less than 2%
Population: 36.500
Language: German, English, French
Currency: Swiss Franc (CHF)
Rate of Inflation: 0,6%
Political Risks: None
Cost of Living: Equivalent to that of Switzerland
Communications: Good
Residence Permit: Difficult; however, it is possible to be employed or self-employed in Liechtenstein without having permanent residency.
Legal System: Modelled on the Swiss and Austrian legal systems; Companies are regulated by the Persons and Companies Act of 1926 (with amendments) and the Trust Companies Act of 1928.
Exchange Control: No
Patent Law: Yes; Based on a treaty with Switzerland patents registered there are also protected in Liechtenstein.
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